Baltic Honey

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LARGE VINTAGE BALTIC HONEY AMBER STERLING 925 SILVER CABOCHON JEWELRY PENDANT
$88.00
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Honey Poland Baltic Amber 925 Sterling Silver Ring Size 9
$49.00
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NATURAL RUSSIAN HONEY BALTIC AMBER STUNNING NECKLACE
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Russian Egg Yolk Butterscotch Honey Baltic Amber Necklace 19 grams
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TOP GRADE BALTIC HONEY AMBER AQUA QUARTZ STATEMENT BIG NECKLACE FOSSIL JEWELRY
$249.99
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NATURAL HONEY COLOR RUSSIAN BALTIC AMBER NECKLACE
$39.99
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STERLING SILVER ADJUSTABLE SINGLE TEARDROP HONEY BALTIC AMBER BYPASS RING K21
$42.60
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STERLING SILVER FLOWER EARRINGS WITH HONEY BALTIC AMBER TEARDROP K21
$53.25
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Honey Baltic Amber Necklace 19 grams
$29.99
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$29.99
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$34.99
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$54.99
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Natural Honey Baltic Amber in Sterling Silver 925 18in Chain HSN N5k10h
$43.34
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Triangle Natural Baltic Honey Amber Sterling Silver Ring Size 75 99 MINT
$48.95
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$38.00
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$47.00
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$39.00
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$19.99
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$14.99
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$130.67
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$79.00
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$119.99
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$19.00
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$79.00
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$24.99
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$29.99
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Chunky Honey Baltic Amber Silver Pendant with Chain
$9.99
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NATURAL HONEY COLOR RUSSIAN BALTIC AMBER NECKLACE CHOKER
$159.99
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Petite Oval Natural Honey Baltic Amber 925 Sterling Pendant Necklace 19 3g
$22.61
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$595.00
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$29.00
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$59.00
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$44.00
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$134.00
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$69.00
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VINTAGE POLAND HONEY BALTIC AMBER STERLING SILVER SIZE 9 STAMPED POLAND 925 V8
$19.99
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BALTIC DARK or LIGHT HONEY AMBER HANDMADE STRETCH BRACELET
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$74.99
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$59.00
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$49.00
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$69.00
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$44.00
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Baltic Amber Pendant with Fossil Insect Mosquito Natural Honey Untreated 253
$139.00
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$139.00
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$54.00
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$145.00
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$75.00
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Beautiful handmade natural Baltic honey amber beaded necklace
$160.00
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VINTAGE BALTIC HONEY AMBER POLISHED DANGLE BEADS NECKLACE 45 GR 18
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Brown Honey Poland Baltic Amber 925 Sterling Silver Dangle Earrings
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$225.00
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Sterling Silver Baltic Honey Amber Delicate Carved Swimming Fish Pendant 32298
$23.95
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Sterling Silver Flaming Fire Bale Authentic Baltic Honey Amber Pendant 32062
$32.95
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Genuine Baltic Honey Amber Oval Cabochon 925 Sterling Silver Bali Ring Size 75
$49.00
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Sterling Silver Handmade Baltic Honey Amber Slice Nugget Piece Pendant 32866
$14.35
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NATURAL HONEY BALTIC AMBER BEADS STRANDS NECKLACE 10 GR
$35.00
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NATURAL HONEY BALTIC AMBER DROP SHAPED BEADS STRANDS NECKLACE 128 GR
$39.00
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Authentic BALTIC AMBER Artisan Fair HONEY color STERLING 925 CLIP ON EARRINGS
$54.00
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Baltic Amber Necklace Honey Butterscotch 26g nuggets 16 pua shells 85+ p
$37.80
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$16.20
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Natural Aquamarine and Baltic Honey Amber 185 beaded necklace 91g
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Amethyst and baltic honey amber necklace large pendant sterling clasp
$250.00
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Beautiful handmade Baltic honey amber necklace donut shaped pendant
$170.00
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Gorgeous handmade natural Baltic honey butterscotch dark amber Necklace
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Poland Honey Baltic Amber 925 Sterling Silver Ring Size 8 9 10 Adjustable
$89.00
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10 Natural Genuine Honey Color Baltic Amber Necklace
$499.00
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Honey Baltic Amber 925 Sterling Silver Ring Size 7 1 2 8 9 Adjustable
$59.00
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Poland Honey Baltic Amber 925 Sterling Silver Ring Size 5 6 7 Adjustable
$69.00
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NATURAL HONEY COLOR RUSSIAN BALTIC AMBER NECKLACE
$19.99
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Baltic Amber Pendant with Fossil Insects Natural Honey 148 31 gram 925 Silver
$77.00
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Baltic Amber Pendant with Fossil Insect Honey Natural Inclusions 168 59 gram
$110.00
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Baltic Amber Jewelry Pendant Honey Drop Natural Cloudy Untreated 191 52 gram
$75.00
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Baltic Amber Pendant with Fossil Insect Fly Natural Honey 177 84 gram
$164.00
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Baltic Amber Honey Necklace Olive Beads Natural Untreated Unisex 197 182 gram
$168.00
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Baltic Amber Pendant with Fossil Insect Honey Natural 146 23 gram 925 Silver
$49.00
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Baltic Amber Honey Necklace Egg Beads Sparkling Oval Beaded 189 477 gram
$395.00
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Baltic Amber Drop Pendant with Fossil Insects Fly Honey 216 63 gram
$139.00
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Baltic Amber Pendant Fossil Insect Fly Honey Natural Inclusions 174 121 gram
$239.00
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Baltic Amber Pendant with Fossil Insect Ant Honey Natural Inclusions 158 69 g
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Baltic Amber Pendant with Fossil Insects Fly Honey Natural Untreated 19 62 g
$150.00
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Baltic Honey

Estonian Vocabulary

Germanic languages

The heaviest external contribution, nearly one third of the vocabulary, comes from Germanic languages, mainly from Low Saxon (Middle Low German) during the period of German rule, and High German (including standard German). The percentage of Low Saxon and High German loanwords can be estimated at 2225 percent, with Low Saxon making up about 15 percent.

Ex nihilo lexical enrichment

Estonian language planners such as Ado Grenzstein (a journalist active in Estonia in the 1870s90s) tried to use formation ex nihilo, Urschpfung, i.e. they created new words out of nothing. Examples are Ado Grenzstein's coinages kabe raughts, chequers and male hess.

The most famous reformer of Estonian, Johannes Aavik (18801973), also used creations ex nihilo (cf. ree constructions, Tauli 1977), along with other sources of lexical enrichment such as derivations, compositions and loanwords (often from Finnish; cf. Saareste and Raun 1965: 76). Aavik belonged to the so-called Noor-Eesti (oung Estonia) movement, which appeared in Tartu, a university town in south-eastern Estonia, around 1905 (for discussion, see Raun 1991). In Aavik dictionary (1921), which lists approximately 4000 words, there are many words which were (allegedly) created ex nihilo. Consider ese bject, kolp kull, liibuma o cling, naasma o return, come back, nme tupid, dull, range trict, reetma o betray, solge lim, flexible, graceful (which did not gain currency, cf. Contemporary Estonian graatsiline raceful, although the word itself, interestingly, is used for a certain kind of parasitic worm, namely the Ascaris lumbricoides), and veenma o convince. Other Aavikisms ex nihilo (not appearing in Aavik 1921) include nentima o admit, state, nrdima o grow indignant, sme onscience, and tik act."

Note, however, that many of the coinages that have been considered (often by Aavik himself) as words concocted ex nihilo could well have been influenced by foreign lexical items, for example words from Russian, German, French, Finnish, English and Swedish. Aavik had a broad classical education and knew Ancient Greek, Latin and French. Consider relv eapon versus English revolver, roim rime versus English crime, siiras incere versus English sincere/serious embama o embrace versus English embrace, and taunima o condemn, disapprove versus Finnish tuomita o judge (these Aavikisms appear in Aavik 1921 dictionary). Consider also evima o have, possess, own (cf. also Estonian omama o own, and mul on, lit. o me is, i.e. or me there is, meaning have) versus English have; laup orehead versus Russian lob orehead; mrv urder and mrvama o murder versus English murder (these Aavikisms do not appear in Aavik 1921); and laip orpse versus German Leib ody and German Leiche ody, corpse. These words might be better regarded as a peculiar manifestation of morpho-phonemic adaptation of a foreign lexical item. The often irregular and arbitrary sound changes could then be explained not as subconscious foreign influence but rather as conscious manipulation by the coiner. Aavik seems to have paid little attention to the origin of his neologisms. On occasion, he replaced existing native words or expressions with neologisms of foreign descent. Therefore, Aavik cannot be considered a purist in the traditional sense, i.e. he was not nti-foreignisms/loanwords as such.

Table of word production

Proposed origin

No. of word roots

Period

Examples

Nostratic (hypothetical, highly controversial)

130?

... 10 000 BC

m(in)a 'I', s(in)a 'thou', vesi 'water', tabama 'to catch, seize, capture, hit', arbuma 'to magic, charm', puur 'auger', poeg 'son', pkk 'ball of the foot', keel 'tongue', pelgama 'to be afraid, fear', sva 'deep-seated, profound', vedama 'to pull, draw, drag, carry, drive', ks 'one', nimi 'name', too 'that', kes 'who'

Uralic

120

50004000 BC

ala 'under, sub', la 'upper, top', esi 'front', taga 'behind'; see 'this, it', mis 'what', ei 'no'; minema 'to go', tulema 'to come', tundma 'to feel', ujuma 'to swim', pelgama 'to be afraid, fear', kaduma 'to disappear', mskma 'to wash'; puu 'tree', kuusk 'spruce, fir(-tree)', kiv 'birch', murakas 'cloudberry', suvi 'summer', pev 'day', kaja 'echo', kuu 'moon, Luna', lumi 'snow', soo 'marsh, bog, swamp', juga 'jet; falls, waterfall', kala 'fish', k 'snake; blindworm', sisalik 'lizard'; keel 'tongue; language', krv 'ear', luu 'bone', maks 'liver', plv 'knee', psk 'cheek', silm 'eye', muna 'egg', neelama 'to swallow', pala 'piece', sulg 'feather', tuli 'fire', ssi 'ember(s), coal', suusk 'ski', nool 'arrow', sudma 'to row', punuma 'to knit', vask 'copper', v 'belt, girdle'; elama 'to live; to dwell', koolma 'to die, pass away, decease', vgi 'power, vigour, strength, might, force', sala 'secretly', naine 'woman'; kaks 'two', viis 'five'

Finno-Ugric

270

40003000 BC

aju 'brain', di 'marrow', hing 'soul', pea 'head', pii 'tooth', sapp 'gall, bile', vats 'belly, stomach'; aru 'sense, reason', j 'ice', koit 'dawn, daybreak, Aurora', voor 'drumlin', paju 'willow', pihl 'rowan', kask 'birch', mari 'berry', pohl 'cowberry', kamar 'rind', rebane 'fox', nugis 'marten', siil 'hedgehog', utt 'ewe', hiir 'mouse', p 'grouse', mtus 'capercaillie', vares 'crow', psuke 'swallow', sga 'catfish', sinas 'ide', srg 'roach', ti 'louse', kusilane 'ant', koi 'moth, bug'; koda 'house, hall', kla 'village'; plema 'burn, blaze', kdema 'burn, heat', pada 'pot', leem 'soup, broth, brew', vi 'butter', vits 'knife', vestma 'carve', sau 'clay; stock for walking'; sba 'robe'; kolm 'three', neli 'four', kuus 'six'; nid 'witch', ise 'self', ilm 'weather, air'; talv 'winter', sgis 'autumn', iga 'age'; isa 'father', poeg 'son', kdi 'brother-in-law', kond '-hood'; valge 'white', hahk 'gray; eider', uus 'new', sepp 'blacksmith'

Finno-Permic

50140

25001500 BC

kht 'stomach', kri 'throat', sr 'leg, shank', koobas 'cave', prm 'dust, earth', snnik 'dung', peda(jas) 'pine tree', kuslapuu 'honeysuckle', oks 'branch', phkel 'nut', kiud 'fiber', peni 'dog', orav 'squirrel', kotkas 'eagle'; rehi 'threshing barn', kuduma 'to weave, to knit', amb 'crossbow', mla 'oar, paddle', ng 'angle', i 'father-in-law', ike 'thunder', parem 'right, better', vana 'old'; luna 'south, midday', meel 'mind'

Finno-Volgaic

100150

15001000 BC

selg 'back', koon 'snout', kpp 'paw', vaim 'spirit'; kevad 'spring', tht 'star', jrv 'lake', haab 'aspen', saar 'ash tree', tamm 'oak', vaher 'maple', sarapuu 'hazel', lg 'straw', lehm 'cow', siga 'pig', pett 'buttermilk', jahvatama to grind', kurg 'crane, stork', kurvits 'sandpiper', parm 'horse fly', ssk 'midge'; keema 'to boil', hiilgama 'to glow, to gleam', kis 'sleeve', piir 'border'; vene 'boat'; lell 'uncle, father's brother'; jumal 'god'; aher 'barren', jahe 'cool', kva 'hard', sva 'deep'; kargama 'to jump', pesema 'to wash', psima 'to stay, to remain', lpsma 'to milk'

Finno-Lappic

130150

1000500 BC

vihm 'rain', sammal 'moss', org 'valley', vili 'grain, fruit', psas 'bush', pud 'draught', nn 'happiness, fortune', veli 'brother', ime 'miracle', luule 'poetry', taga 'back, behind', tsi 'truth',nlg 'hunger', kll 'surely'

Baltic-Finnic

600800

500 BC 800 AD

pder 'elk', oja 'stream', udu 'fog', hobu 'horse', mnd 'pine tree'; kne 'talk, speech', sna 'word'; aeg 'time', eile 'yesterday'; laps 'child', rahvas 'people', linn 'town'; nuga 'knife', king 'shoe'; julge 'bold'

Estonian and unknown

appr. 1000

 

rni 'silicium', roie 'rib', salk 'bunch', videvik 'twilight', jrak 'gorge, valley', ila 'saliva', aas 'meadow', lubi 'lime', lhn 'smell', kaan 'leech', kesv 'barley', rp 'cloak', hiili- 'to sneak', mahe 'sweet, gentle', mru 'bitter', raip 'carrion', roni- 'to climb' + numerous onomatopoetic-descriptive words

Artificial

5060

 

veenma 'to persuade, convince', roim 'crime' (probably derived from the English 'crime'), laip 'dead body, corpse' (probably derived from the German 'Leib'), kolp 'scull', relv 'weapon, arm', ese 'thing', sme 'conscience; scruple', mrv 'murder' (probably derived from the German 'Mord'), ulm 'dream', siiras 'sincere, candid', range 'rigorous, stern, severe, austere, strict, inexorable, relentless' (? German 'streng', Swedish 'strng'), sulnis 'sweet, meek, mild', nme 'silly', taunima 'to disapprove, deprecate, deplore', naasma 'to return', reetma 'to betray' (probably from the German '(ver)raten'), embama 'to embrace'; eirama 'to ignore', eramu 'private house', etlema 'to perform', klar 'loudspeaker', klmik 'refrigerator', meede 'measure', meene 'souvenir', siirdama 'to transplant', teave 'information', teismeline 'teenager', teler 'TV set', llitis 'publication', randama, levima, sva(muusika), taies 'piece of art', rula 'skateboard'

Proto-Indo-European loans (hypothetical)

appr. 50

50003000 BC

higi 'sweat', huul 'lip', koib 'leg', krv 'ear', kube 'groin', klg 'side', liha 'meat', lug 'chin', nahk 'skin, leather', rind 'breast', selg 'back'; mgi 'hill, mountain', mets 'forest', neem 'cape', nmm 'moor', oja 'stream', org 'valley', saar 'island', soo 'bog'; ahven 'perch', haug 'pike', koger 'crucian carp', koha 'pike-perch', rbis 'vendace', siig 'whitefish', vimb 'vimba bream', jnes 'hare', konn 'frog'; helmes 'bead'

Indo-European and Indo-Iranian loans

2045

30001000 BC

mesi 'honey', sool 'salt', osa 'part', sada 'hundred', prsas 'piglet', varss 'calf', sarv 'horn', puhas 'clean', vasar 'hammer'

Proto-Baltic and Baltic loans

100150

1500500 BC

hammas 'tooth', hani 'goose', hein 'hay', hernes 'pea', him 'tribe', oinas 'weather', puder 'porridge', prgu 'hell', ratas 'wheel', seeme 'seed', sein 'wall', mets 'wood', luht 'waterside meadow', sber 'friend', tuhat 'thousand', vagu 'furrow', regi 'sledge', vill 'wool', veel 'more, still', kael 'neck', kirves 'axe', laisk 'lazy'

Proto-Germanic and Germanic loans

380

2000 BC 13th century

agan, ader 'plough', humal, kana 'hen', kaer 'oats', rukis 'rye', lammas 'sheep', leib 'bread', pld 'field'; aer 'oar', mrd 'fish trap', laev 'ship', noot 'seine, sweep net', puri 'sail'; kuld 'gold', raud 'iron', tina 'tin'; sukk 'stocking', katel 'kettle', knal 'candle', taigen 'dough'; kuningas 'king', laen 'loan', luna 'ransom, bail', raha 'money', rikas 'rich', vald 'parish, community'; kalju 'rock', kallas 'shore', rand 'coast'; armas 'dear', taud 'disease', kaunis 'beautiful', ja 'and'

Old Slavic loans

5075

10th13th century

aken 'window', sahk 'plough', sirp 'sickle', turg 'market', teng(elpung) 'money', pagan 'heathen', papp 'priest', raamat 'book', rist 'cross', kasukas 'fur coat'

Proto-Latvian loans

40

6th7th century

kanep 'hemp', lts 'lentil', magun 'poppy', udras 'otter', kuts 'tomcat', palakas 'sheet', lupard 'rag', harima 'cultivate, educate, clean', kukkel 'bun', vanik 'garland', laabuma 'to thrive', kauss 'bowl', mulk 'inhabitant of Viljandi county', pastel 'leather slipper'

Low Saxon loans

750

12th16th century

kool 'school',neer 'kidney', ribi 'rib'; kruus 'gravel', torm 'storm';' krvits 'pumpkin', peet 'beet', salat 'salad', petersell 'parsley', mnt 'coin', kmen 'caraway, cumin', loorber 'laurel', palm 'palm (tree)', tamm 'dam', roos 'rose', ploom 'plum'; hunt 'wolf; hound', kk 'kitchen', kruubid 'groat', kringel 'kringle, type of pastry', pannkook 'pancake', pekk 'lard', prantssai 'type of pastry', slt 'brawn', vorst 'sausage', li 'oil', trklis 'starch', pruukost 'breakfast', kruus 'mug', pann 'pan', ptt 'barrel', korv 'basket', lhker 'bota', toober 'tub', tiik 'pond', lamp 'lamp', lhter 'chandelier'; krid 'scissors', teljed 'looms', vokk 'spinning wheel', luend 'canvas', samet 'velvet', siid 'silk', vilt 'felt', kuub 'coat', krt 'skirt', loor 'veil', mts 'cap', muda 'mud', mantel 'coat', pksid 'pants, trousers', vammus 'coat', np 'button'; hoov 'courtyard', hrber 'mansion', kelder 'cellar', kemmerg 'toilet', korsten 'chimney', ruum 'room', saal 'hall', tall 'stables', haamer 'hammer', hing 'hinge', hvel 'planer', kellu 'trowel', kapp 'cupboard', pink 'bench', tool 'stool', trepp 'stairs', vall 'wall, ridge', vlv 'vault'; jaht 'hunt', jger 'hunter, hunt mnager, game warden', kants 'stronghold', ktt 'hunter', laager 'camp', lahing 'battle', piir 'border', pss 'gun, rifle', tk 'bayonet', vaht 'watch'; altar 'altar', ingel 'angel', jnger 'disciple', psalm 'psalm', prohvet 'prophet', salm 'verse', preester 'priest', troost 'consolation', pihtima 'to confess', vrmnder 'church warden, beadle', piiskop 'bishop', sant 'beggar, cripple'; preili 'miss, maiden', memm 'old woman', mats 'boor, hick', hrra 'gentleman', proua 'lady', kelm 'dodger, rascal, cheat', narr 'joker, fool', naaber 'neighbour', kuller 'courrier', laat 'fair, market', selts 'society, club', krahv 'count', saks 'German, nobleman', arst 'doctor', plaaster 'tape, plaster'; hangeldama 'smuggle', krima 'scour', tingima 'to bargain', kortel 'quartern', matt 'a measure', toll 'inch', vaagima 'to weigh', viht 'weight', r 'rent', paar 'pair', piik 'spike, lance', tosin 'dozen', veerand 'quarter'; nrid 'new year', reede 'Friday', tund 'hour', vastlad 'shrovetide'; ankur 'anchor', kiil 'keel', tr 'steer', praam 'pram, ferry', madrus 'sailor', pootsman 'boatswain', kotermann 'ship gremlin', loots 'pilot', kipper 'skipper'; kaart 'map, card', kunst 'art', maaler 'painter', maalima 'to paint', paber 'paper', trkkima 'to print', uurima 'to search, study, survey', trumm 'drum', tantsima 'to dance', piip 'pipe', vilepill 'whistle', pasun 'horn, trumpet'; just 'just, namely', topelt 'double', vrt 'valuable'

Swedish loans

140

13th17th century

kratt 'stealing demon', kroonu 'army, government', kuunar 'schooner', pagar 'baker', nkk 'mermaid, nix', plasku 'flask', plika 'girl', tasku 'pocket', rim 'herring', tnder 'barrel', moor 'old woman', puldan, tont 'ghost, demon'

Russian loans

350

14th20th century

kapsas, tatar, puravik, riisikas, sihvka, kiisu, suslik, kulu, prussakas, tarakan, naarits, soobel, uss; noos, moiva, vobla, mutt; kamorka, putka, sara, lobudik, trahter, koiku, nari, pruss, tkat; hlst, kamass, kirsa, kombinesoon, kott, puhvaika, marli, pintsak, retuusid, trussikud; kiisel, pontik, rosolje, rupskid, bor, uhhaa, morss, samagon; batoon, kissell, plombiir, povidlo, alkk, uhhaa; plotski, mahorka, pabeross; mannerg, kopsik; nuut, kantsik, piits, tupik, relss, jaam; kabi, knopka; kasakas, kasarmu, karauul, katelok, kiiver, munder, nekrut, pagun, polk, ranits, sinel, tentsik, utsitama, timukas, rajoon, trm, pops, artell; palakas, haltuura, parseldama, parisnik, siva, tolk, tots, pujn, kitt, tuur, ladna, prosta, sutike; kaanima, kostitama, kruttima, kupeldama

(High) German loans

500

16th20th century

larhv, lokk, seitel; kastan, pappel, kirss, jasmiin, jorjen, kartul, tulp, vihk; ahv, auster, kalkun, siisike, miisu, mops, taks, kits, vau, viidikas, nepp, pistrik; klimp, klops, kotlet, kompvek, supp, tort, viiner, soust, vahvel, vrts, vein; jope, kittel, kampsun, kleit, vest, lips, vrvel, sall, pluus; kamin, pliit, kr(kamber), sahver, latter, kabel, palat; pult, sohva, leen, kummut, kardin, sahtel; uur, klade, klamber, latern, sihverplaat, silt; opman, oober, tisler, tudeng, velsker, virtin, antvrk, aadlik, krner, kilter, kutsar, lrm, oksjon, krempel, klat; krehvtine, hull, liiderlik, napp, noobel, ontlik, plass, tumm, trammis; kleepima, klantsima, mehkeldama, sehkendama, rehkendama, trimpama, pummeldama, praalima, turnima; ahoi, proosit, hurraa, hopp, hallo

Finnish loans

90

19th20th century

aare, sangar, harras, jenka, julm, jik, snge, tehas, uljas, vaist, vihjama, silima, kuvama, haihtuma, anastama

Hebrew loans

< 5

 

jaana(lind) 'ostrich', tohuvabohu 'chaos'

Romani loans

<5

 

manguma 'to beg'

References

^ Liin, Helgi 1968. Alamsaksa laensnadest 16. ja 17. sajandi eesti kirjakeeles. Emakeele Seltsi aastaraamat 13, 1967. Tallinn: Eesti Raamat, 4770 (Estonian)

^ History of Estonian vocabulary (Estonian)

^ a b c See p. 149 in Zuckermann, Ghil'ad 2003, Language Contact and Lexical Enrichment in Israeli Hebrew, Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, (Palgrave Studies in Language History and Language Change, Series editor: Charles Jones). ISBN 1-4039-1723-X.

^ See p. 150 in Zuckermann, Ghil'ad 2003, Language Contact and Lexical Enrichment in Israeli Hebrew, Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, (Palgrave Studies in Language History and Language Change, Series editor: Charles Jones). ISBN 1-4039-1723-X.

Categories: Estonian language | Vocabulary
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